HTML Character codes

Character HTML code Other apps Use
em dash  
  • sudden break in thought, open range, vague dates
  • Two adjacent em dashes indicates missing letters in a word.
  • Three adjacent em dashes indicates entire missing word.
en dash -   to, range of numbers|games|score|etc., joint authors,
minus   minus sign
thin space   (not in HTML)
  surround em spaces
soft hyphen ­   indicate where a word may be broken at the end of a line
em space    
en space    
zero width space ​ (not in HTML)   break a long word at end of line
zero width no-break space  (not in HTML)   keep a word from breaking
opening single quote Ctrl + ` ` in Word (two grave accents)  
closing single quote Ctrl + " in Word  
opening double quote Ctrl + ` " in Word  
closing double quote Ctrl +' " in Word  
single prime   feet or minutes
double prime   inches or seconds
chapped ellipsis   missing words, thought or quotation trailing off
non-breaking hyphen,
hyphen character,
hyphenation point

  non-breaking hyphen,
replaces hyphen minus,
separate syllables (dictionaries)


HTML 4.01 strict

HTML 4.01 transitional
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "">

HTML 4.01 frame
<"-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN">


Most of the information above was shamelessly pilfered from the articles listed below. Go there. Now.